Waking State: Rapid Variations Modulate Neural and Behavioral Responses

Matthew J. McGinley, Martin Vinck, Jacob Reimer, Renata Batista-Brito, Edward Zagha, Cathryn R. Cadwell, Andreas S. Tolias, Jessica A. Cardin, David A. McCormick

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

442 Scopus citations


The state of the brain and body constantly varies on rapid and slow timescales. These variations contribute to the apparent noisiness of sensory responses at both the neural and the behavioral level. Recent investigations of rapid state changes in awake, behaving animals have provided insight into the mechanisms by which optimal sensory encoding and behavioral performance are achieved. Fluctuations in state, as indexed by pupillometry, impact both the "signal" (sensory evoked response) and the "noise" (spontaneous activity) of cortical responses. By taking these fluctuations into account, neural response (co)variability is significantly reduced, revealing the brain to be more reliable and predictable than previously thought. The waking brain appears to be noisy, giving rise to variable responses. McGinley et al. review literature that reveals the careful monitoring of waking can control for these variations and reveal a brain that is both reliable and predictable.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1143-1161
Number of pages19
Issue number6
StatePublished - Sep 23 2015
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Neuroscience


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