Ureteral Stent Encrustation: Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, Management and Current Technology

Nir Tomer, Evan Garden, Alexander Small, Michael Palese

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

45 Scopus citations


Purpose:Encrustation is a common phenomenon that can occur following placement of a ureteral stent into the urinary tract, and it can lead to serious complications. The following review addresses the mechanism of encrustation, the management of these stents and the newest technology developed to mitigate this issue.Materials and Methods:We performed a comprehensive literature search on stent encrustation including peer-reviewed publications, public product listings, and material on current and future stent technology.Results:The mechanism of encrustation is complex and multifaceted, including dwell time, patient specific risk factors, conditioning film formation, biofilm formation and mineral deposition. Several technological developments in stent materials and coatings may have a role in reducing the risk of stent encrustation. It is important to identify the extent of stent encrustation and plan treatment strategies accordingly. We propose a novel treatment algorithm for the management encrusted ureteral stents.Conclusions:The ubiquity of ureteral stents in urology practice mandates updated knowledge about the prevention of stent encrustation, identification of high risk patients and preparedness for removal using multimodal techniques.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)68-77
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Urology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • risk factors
  • stents
  • ureter
  • ureteral obstruction
  • urine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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