Purpose To provide the foundation for combining immunotherapy to induce tumor antigen-specific T cells with proton radiation therapy to exploit the activity of those T cells. Methods and Materials Using cell lines of tumors frequently treated with proton radiation, such as prostate, breast, lung, and chordoma, we examined the effect of proton radiation on the viability and induction of immunogenic modulation in tumor cells by flow cytometric and immunofluorescent analysis of surface phenotype and the functional immune consequences. Results These studies show for the first time that (1) proton and photon radiation induced comparable up-regulation of surface molecules involved in immune recognition (histocompatibility leukocyte antigen, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, and the tumor-associated antigens carcinoembryonic antigen and mucin 1); (2) proton radiation mediated calreticulin cell-surface expression, increasing sensitivity to cytotoxic T-lymphocyte killing of tumor cells; and (3) cancer stem cells, which are resistant to the direct cytolytic activity of proton radiation, nonetheless up-regulated calreticulin after radiation in a manner similar to non-cancer stem cells. Conclusions These findings offer a rationale for the use of proton radiation in combination with immunotherapy, including for patients who have failed radiation therapy alone or have limited treatment options.
|Number of pages
|International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics
|Published - May 1 2016
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Cancer Research