Total energy expenditure as assessed by doubly labeled water and all-cause mortality in a cohort of postmenopausal women

Ross L. Prentice, Aaron K. Aragaki, Jo Ann E. Manson, Dale A. Schoeller, Lesley F. Tinker, Yasmin Mossavar-Rahmani, Robert B. Wallace, Michael J. LaMonte, Janet A. Tooze, Karen C. Johnson, Johanna W. Lampe, Marian L. Neuhouser

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: The association of TEE with all-cause mortality is uncertain, as is the dependence of this association on age. Objectives: To examine the association between TEE and all-cause mortality, and its age interaction, in a Women's Health Initiative (WHI) cohort of postmenopausal United States women (1992–present). Methods: A cohort of 1131 WHI participants having DLW TEE assessment of ∼10.0 y (median) following WHI enrollment with ∼13.7 y (median) of subsequent follow-up, was used to study the EE associations with all-cause mortality. To enhance the comparability of TEE and total EI, key analyses excluded participants having >5% weight change between WHI enrollment and DLW assessment. The influence of participant age on mortality associations was examined, as was the ability of concurrent and earlier weight and height measurements to explain the results. Results: There were 308 deaths following the TEE assessment through 2021. TEE was unrelated to overall mortality (P = 0.83) in this cohort of generally healthy, older (mean 71 y at TEE assessment) United States women. However, this potential association varied with age (P = 0.003). Higher TEE was associated with a higher mortality rate at the age of 60 y and a lower mortality rate at the age of 80 y. Within the weight-stable subset (532 participants, 129 deaths), TEE was weakly positively related to overall mortality (P = 0.08). This association also varied with age (P = 0.03), with mortality HRs (95% CIs) for a 20% increment in TEE of 2.33 (1.24, 4.36) at the age of 60 y, 1.49 (1.10, 2.02) at 70 y of age, and 0.96 (0.66, 1.38) at 80 y of age. This pattern remained, although was somewhat attenuated, following control for baseline weight and weight changes between WHI enrollment and TEE assessment. Conclusions: Higher EE is associated with higher all-cause mortality among younger postmenopausal women, only partially explained by weight and weight change. This study is registered with identifier: NCT00000611.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)955-963
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2023


  • all-cause mortality
  • body weight
  • doubly labeled water
  • energy expenditure
  • energy intake

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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