The use of image-guided surgery in endoscopic sinus surgery: An evidence-based review with recommendations

Vijay R. Ramakrishnan, Richard R. Orlandi, Martin J. Citardi, Timothy L. Smith, Marvin P. Fried, Todd T. Kingdom

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

54 Scopus citations


Background: The frequency of endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) appears to be increasing, and the use of image-guided surgery (IGS) in these procedures is becoming more widespread. The use of IGS in ESS and anterior skull base surgery is predicated on the notion that its ability to aid in anatomic identification during surgery will lead to fewer complications and improved surgical outcomes. The purpose of this article is to provide an evidence-based examination of the benefits of IGS in ESS. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was performed and recommendations were created based on the Clinical Practice Guideline Manual, Conference of Guideline Standardization (COGS), and the Appraisal of Guidelines and Research Evaluation (AGREE) instruments. Results: This review identified and evaluated literature regarding the effect of IGS on surgical complications and on postoperative outcomes in ESS. Currently, there is grade C evidence to support the use of IGS in ESS. Conclusion: Based on the best available evidence in the literature, the use of IGS has not clearly been shown to decrease surgical complications or improve surgical outcomes. These evidence-based recommendations are based on limited literature with suboptimal research methodology. However, the importance, utility, and acceptance of IGS through expert opinion and consensus are supported by the available literature. Therefore, the use of IGS in ESS is an option and should be based on clinical judgment and applied on a case-by-case basis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)236-241
Number of pages6
JournalInternational Forum of Allergy and Rhinology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2013


  • Computer-assisted surgery
  • Endoscopy
  • Evidence-based medicine
  • Image-guided surgery
  • Sinus surgery
  • Sinusitis
  • Surgical complications

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Otorhinolaryngology


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