The timing and laminar profile of converging inputs to multisensory areas of the macaque neocortex

Charles E. Schroeder, John J. Foxe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

348 Scopus citations


Two fundamental requirements for multisensory integration are convergence of unisensory (e.g. visual and auditory) inputs and temporal alignment of the neural responses to convergent inputs. We investigated the anatomic mechanisms of multisensory convergence by examining three areas in which convergence occurs, posterior auditory association cortex, superior temporal polysensory area (STP) and ventral intraparietal sulcus area (VIP). The first of these was recently shown to be a site of multisensory convergence and the latter two are more well known as 'classic' multisensory regions. In each case, we focused on defining the laminar profile of response to the unisensory inputs. This information is useful because two major types of connection, feedforward and feedback, have characteristic differences in laminar termination patterns, which manifest physiologically. In the same multisensory convergence areas we also examined the timing of the unisensory inputs using the same standardized stimuli across all recordings. Our findings indicate that: (1) like somatosensory input [J. Neurophysiol., 85 (2001) 1322], visual input is available at very early stages of auditory processing, (2) convergence occurs through feedback, as well as feedforward anatomical projections and (3) input timing may be an asset, as well as a constraint in multisensory processing.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)187-198
Number of pages12
JournalCognitive Brain Research
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2002


  • Current source density
  • ERP
  • Feedback
  • Multisensory
  • Temporal coincidence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Behavioral Neuroscience


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