The molecular properties and applications of Anthozoa fluorescent proteins and chromoproteins

Vladislav V. Verkhusha, Konstantin A. Lukyanov

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

278 Scopus citations


The green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria and its fluorescent homologs from Anthozoa corals have become invaluable tools for in vivo imaging of cells and tissues. Despite spectral and chromophore diversity, about 100 cloned members of the GFP-like protein family possess common structural, biochemical and photophysical features. Anthozoa GFP-like proteins are available in colors and properties unlike those of A. victoria GFP variants and thus provide powerful new fluorophores for molecular labeling and intracellular detection. Although Anthozoa GFP-like proteins provide some advantages over GFP, they also have certain drawbacks, such as obligate oligomerization and slow or incomplete fluorescence maturation. In the past few years, effective approaches for eliminating some of these limitations have been described. In addition, several Anthozoa GFP-like proteins have been developed into novel imaging agents, such as monomeric red and dimeric far-red fluorescent proteins, fluorescent timers and photoconvertible fluorescent labels. Future studies on the structure of this diverse set of proteins will further enhance their use in animal tissues and as intracellular biosensors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)289-296
Number of pages8
JournalNature biotechnology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2004
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Bioengineering
  • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Biomedical Engineering


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