The lung microenvironment: an important regulator of tumour growth and metastasis

Nasser K. Altorki, Geoffrey J. Markowitz, Dingcheng Gao, Jeffrey L. Port, Ashish Saxena, Brendon Stiles, Timothy McGraw, Vivek Mittal

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

633 Scopus citations


Lung cancer is a major global health problem, as it is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Major advances in the identification of key mutational alterations have led to the development of molecularly targeted therapies, whose efficacy has been limited by emergence of resistance mechanisms. US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved therapies targeting angiogenesis and more recently immune checkpoints have reinvigorated enthusiasm in elucidating the prognostic and pathophysiological roles of the tumour microenvironment in lung cancer. In this Review, we highlight recent advances and emerging concepts for how the tumour-reprogrammed lung microenvironment promotes both primary lung tumours and lung metastasis from extrapulmonary neoplasms by contributing to inflammation, angiogenesis, immune modulation and response to therapies. We also discuss the potential of understanding tumour microenvironmental processes to identify biomarkers of clinical utility and to develop novel targeted therapies against lung cancer.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)9-31
Number of pages23
JournalNature Reviews Cancer
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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