The Different Routes to Metastasis via Hypoxia-Regulated Programs

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72 Scopus citations


Hypoxia is linked to metastasis; however, how it affects metastatic progression is not clear due to limited consensus in the literature. We posit that this lack of consensus is due to hypoxia being studied using different approaches, such as in vitro, primary tumor, or metastasis assays in an isolated manner. Here, we review the pros and cons of in vitro hypoxia assays, highlight in vivo studies that inform on physiological hypoxia, and review the evidence that primary tumor hypoxia might influence the fate of disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) in secondary organs. Our analysis suggests that consensus can be reached by using in vivo methods of study, which also allow better modeling of how hypoxia affects DTC fate and metastasis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)941-956
Number of pages16
JournalTrends in Cell Biology
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2018


  • disseminated tumor cell
  • dormancy
  • hypoxia
  • hypoxia probes
  • hypoxia sensor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cell Biology


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