The association between critical shoulder angle and revision following anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty: a matched case-control study

Eloy Tabeayo, Priscilla H. Chan, Heather A. Prentice, Mark T. Dillon, Karimdad Otarodi, Anshuman Singh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Hypothesis: The concept of the critical shoulder angle (CSA) was introduced in 2013, with studies showing that larger CSA is associated with rotator cuff tears (RCTs) and smaller CSA with glenohumeral osteoarthritis. We hypothesized outcomes following total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) would differ depending on CSA. Methods: We conducted a matched case-control study using Kaiser Permanente's Shoulder Arthroplasty Registry to identify patients who underwent primary elective anatomic TSA for the diagnosis of osteoarthritis from 2009-2018. Seventy-eight adult patients who underwent revision following the primary TSA due to glenoid component failure or rotator cuff tear comprised the case group. A control group of nonrevised patients were identified from the same source population. Two controls were matched to each case by age, gender, body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologists classification, surgeon who performed the index TSA, and post-TSA follow-up time. The relationship between revision and CSA as measured on radiographs were analyzed as a 1:2 matched-pairs case-control study with use of multiple conditional multivariable logistic regression. Results: Revised cases had a higher likelihood of a CSA ≥35° (odds ratio [OR] = 2.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.27-4.59). A higher likelihood of CSA ≥35° was observed for those revised for glenoid loosening (OR = 4.58, 95% CI = 1.20-17.50) and revised for rotator cuff tear (OR = 2.41, 95% CI = 1.18-4.92) compared with nonrevised controls. Every 5° increase in CSA had higher odds of overall revision (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.18-2.21), glenoid loosening (OR = 2.50, 95% CI = 1.27-4.92), and rotator cuff tear (OR = 1.51, 95% CI = 1.07-2.14). Conclusion: In a matched case-control study of primary anatomic TSA, individuals who were revised for aseptic glenoid loosening and superior cuff failure had a higher CSA compared with nonrevised individuals. These data suggest that surgeons may consider using reverse arthroplasty in cases of primary shoulder arthritis with a CSA of 35° or greater.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1796-1802
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Level III
  • Prognosis Study
  • Retrospective Case-Control Design
  • Total shoulder arthroplasty
  • critical shoulder angle
  • glenoid failure
  • revision
  • rotator cuff tear

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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