Thalidomide and thalidomide analogs reduce HIV type 1 replication in human macrophages in Vitro

André L. Moreira, Laura G. Corral, Weiguo Ye, Barbara Johnson, David Stirling, George W. Muller, Victoria H. Freedman, Gilla Kaplan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

77 Scopus citations


Thalidomide is currently being evaluated for efficacy in alleviating some manifestations of HIV-1 infection. To determine whether thalidomide has any direct effects on HIV-1 infection, we investigated the effect of thalidomide and also of three structural analogs of thalidomide on HIV-1 replication in vitro in human monocyte-derived macrophages. The thalidomide analogs were previously shown to inhibit TNF-α production in vitro at much lower concentrations than thalidomide. In HIV-1-infected macrophages treated with thalidomide or thalidomide analogs, vital replication was reduced by 60 to 80% as determined by measuring vital RT activity in the culture supernatants. In all experiments the analogs inhibited HIV-1 replication more efficiently than did thalidomide. The drugs also reduced HIV-1 gag mRNA expression. Furthermore, the drugs caused a decrease in NF-κB-binding activity in nuclear extracts of HIV-1-infected macrophages. The role of NF- κB in the drug-induced inhibition of HIV-1 replication was confirmed using an NF-κB-defective mutant virus to infect macrophages.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)857-863
Number of pages7
JournalAIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Issue number10
StatePublished - Jul 1 1997
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Virology
  • Infectious Diseases


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