Subclavian, vertebral, and upper extremity vascular disease

Ian Del Conde, Cristina Sanina, Jose M. Wiley

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Upper extremity vascular disease can be conceptually divided into “large-artery” disease involving the inflow arteries, such as the subclavian and axillary arteries, involving the arteries distal to the wrist. Use of drugs causing vasospasm, such as ergotamine, cocaine, and amphetamines, can cause intense upper extremity arterial vasospasm. Takayasu’s arteritis (TA) and giant cell arteritis (GCA) are granulomatous arteritides that can involve the aorta and its major branches. Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) refers to the extrinsic compression of the subclavian artery, subclavian vein, and/or brachial plexus, as these course through the scalene triangle, formed by the first rib, the clavicle, the scalenus medius muscle, and the costoclavicular ligament. Although overall uncommon, radiation-induced arterial injury is a well-documented complication in patients with a history of previous head and neck or mediastinal radiation. CT angiography (CTA) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) have become among the most valuable non-invasive imaging modalities for the assessment of upper extremity vascular diseases.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationInterventional Cardiology
Subtitle of host publicationPrinciples and Practice
Number of pages6
ISBN (Electronic)9781118983652
ISBN (Print)9781118976036
StatePublished - Nov 21 2016


  • Arterial vasospasm
  • Arteritis
  • CT angiography
  • Costoclavicular ligament
  • Giant cell arteritis
  • Granulomatous arteritides
  • Radiation-induced arterial injury
  • Subclavian vein
  • Thoracic outlet syndrome
  • Upper extremity vascular disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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