Solutions to Address Inequity in Diabetes Technology Use in Type 1 Diabetes: Results from Multidisciplinary Stakeholder Co-creation Workshops

Shivani Agarwal, Gladys Crespo-Ramos, Stephanie L. Leung, Molly Finnan, Tina Park, Katie McCurdy, Jeffrey S. Gonzalez, Judith A. Long

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Background: Racial-ethnic inequity in type 1 diabetes technology use is well documented and contributes to disparities in glycemic and long-Term outcomes. However, solutions to address technology inequity remain sparse and lack stakeholder input. Methods: We employed user-centered design principles to conduct workshop sessions with multidisciplinary panels of stakeholders, building off of our prior study highlighting patient-identified barriers and proposed solutions. Stakeholders were convened to review our prior findings and co-create interventions to increase technology use among underserved populations with type 1 diabetes. Stakeholders included type 1 diabetes patients who had recently onboarded to technology; endocrinology and primary care physicians; nurses; diabetes educators; psychologists; and community health workers. Sessions were recorded and analyzed iteratively by multiple coders for common themes. Results: We convened 7 virtual 2-h workshops for 32 stakeholders from 11 states in the United States. Patients and providers confirmed prior published studies highlighting patient barriers and generated new ideas by co-creating solutions. Common themes of proposed interventions included (1) prioritizing more equitable systems of offering technology, (2) using visual and hands-on approaches to increase accessibility of technology and education, (3) including peer and family support systems more, and (4) assisting with insurance navigation and social needs. Discussion: Our study furthers the field by providing stakeholder-endorsed intervention ideas that propose feasible changes at the patient, provider, and system levels to reduce inequity in diabetes technology use in type 1 diabetes. Multidisciplinary stakeholder engagement in disparities research offers unique insight that is impactful and acceptable to the target population.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)381-389
Number of pages9
JournalDiabetes Technology and Therapeutics
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 1 2022


  • Diabetes technology
  • Disparities
  • Inequity
  • Minority
  • Race-ethnicity
  • Type 1 diabetes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology
  • Medical Laboratory Technology


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