Socioeconomic Disparities in Gastric Cancer and Identification of a Single SES Variable for Predicting Risk

Srawani Sarkar, Marc J. Dauer, Haejin In

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Introduction: Socioeconomic status (SES) is a known risk factor for gastric cancer (GC). This study seeks to examine education, income, and occupation variables separately to identify the single variable that can be best used to assess SES risk for GC. Methods: Data from a case-control survey study were used. Logistic regression models were created for education, income, and occupation adjusted for age, sex, and race. Models were compared using AIC, c-statistics, and pseudo-R square to determine the model that had the highest risk predictive ability. Results: GC cases had lower education levels and more commonly held jobs in unskilled labor. Annual household income was lower in cases compared to controls. Age, gender, race, education, and occupation were associated with increased risk of GC. The education model adjusted for age, gender, and race found < high school (HS) education to have an OR of 3.18 (95% CI 1.09–9.25) for GC compared to > HS education. The occupation model demonstrated that employment in unskilled labor had OR of 4.32 (95% CI 1.05–17.76) for GC compared to professional occupation. Model fit was best for the education model (AIC: 113.583, lower AIC is better) compared to income (117.562) or occupation (117.032). Education contributed the most to model variability (% delta pseudo-R square (4.7%)) compared to occupation (4.0%) or income (3.8%). Conclusion: Education level was the single most reliable measure of GC risk among 3 SES variables and can be employed as an ideal single indicator of SES-related GC risk when multiple SES factors cannot be obtained.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)170-178
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Gastrointestinal Cancer
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Best SES variable
  • Gastric cancer
  • Risk prediction
  • Socioeconomic status
  • Survey study

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Gastroenterology


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