Sex disparities and neutralizing-antibody durability to sars-cov-2 infection in convalescent individuals

Alena J. Markmann, Natasa Giallourou, D. Ryan Bhowmik, Yixuan J. Hou, Aaron Lerner, David R. Martinez, Lakshmanane Premkumar, Heather Root, David van Duin, Sonia Napravnik, Stephen D. Graham, Quique Guerra, Rajendra Raut, Christos J. Petropoulos, Terri Wrin, Caleb Cornaby, John Schmitz, Jo Ann Kuruc, Susan Weiss, Yara ParkRalph Baric, Aravinda M. de Silva, David M. Margolis, Luther A. Bartelt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Scopus citations


The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has now caused over 2 million deaths worldwide and continues to expand. Currently, much is unknown about functionally neutralizing human antibody responses and durability to SARS-CoV- 2months after infection or the reason for the discrepancy in COVID-19 disease and sex. Using convalescent-phase sera collected from 101 COVID-19-recovered individuals 21 to 212 days after symptom onset with 48 additional longitudinal samples, we measured functionality and durability of serum antibodies. We also evaluated associations of individual demographic and clinical parameters with functional neutralizing antibody responses to COVID-19. We found robust antibody durability out to 6 months, as well as significant positive associations with the magnitude of the neutralizing antibody response and male sex and in individuals with cardiometabolic comorbidities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere00275-21
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Antibodies
  • Immunology
  • Neutralizing
  • Neutralizing antibodies
  • SARS-CoV-2

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Molecular Biology


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