Severe pediatric midface trauma: A prospective study of growth and development

Edward H. Davidson, Lindsay Schuster, S. Alex Rottgers, Darren M. Smith, Sanjay Naran, Jesse A. Goldstein, Joseph E. Losee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Severe pediatric facial trauma is characterized by multiple, comminuted, and unstable fractures, frequently necessitating operative intervention. Disruption of facial growth is a primary concern in the long-term sequelae of such conditions. Children suffering from midface fractures were followed over time in a long-term growth and development study. Lateral cephalograms at longest-term follow-up were traced, digitized, and averaged. Seven landmarks of the midface (A point, ANS, orbitale, bridge of nose, distal U6, upper lip, stomion superius) were identified for comparative measurements with age and sex-matched superimposed Bolton norms as controls. Differences in x and y axes between test and control metrics were measured. Clinical significance was defined as a 2-mm discrepancy from the norm. Statistical significance for each patient was determined using t tests of the x and y arrays of patient values versus normal controls. Seven patients met the inclusion criteria with mean age of 8.9 years at the time of injury. Mean cephalometric follow-up was 4.6 years (range 2-10 years). Six out of 7 patients (86%) showed clinically significant impairment in growth in horizontal (29%), vertical (29%), or both planes (29%). T Tests confirmed statistical significance (P-0.05) for all clinically significant differences. Mean deficiency in growth for all landmarks was 3.7mm (range -4.0 to 13.7 mm) in the x axis and 2.9mm (range -1.1 to 8.8 mm) in the y axis. Severe pediatric midface trauma often results in compromised bone growth and permanent facial deformity. New methodologies of management that better allow for growth are needed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1523-1528
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Craniofacial Surgery
Issue number5
StatePublished - Jul 1 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Cephalometrics
  • Facial fracture
  • Midface growth
  • Pediatric trauma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology


Dive into the research topics of 'Severe pediatric midface trauma: A prospective study of growth and development'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this