"Sarcoid like" granulomatous pulmonary disease in World Trade Center disaster responders

Laura E. Crowley, Robin Herbert, Jacqueline M. Moline, Sylvan Wallenstein, Gauri Shukla, Clyde Schechter, Gwen S. Skloot, Iris Udasin, Benjamin J. Luft, Denise Harrison, Moshe Shapiro, Karen Wong, Henry S. Sacks, Philip J. Landrigan, Alvin S. Teirstein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

100 Scopus citations


Background: More than 20,000 responders have been examined through the World Trade Center (WTC) Medical Monitoring and Treatment Program since September 11, 2001. Studies on WTC firefighters have shown elevated rates of sarcoidosis. The main objective of this study was to report the incidence of "sarcoid like" granulomatous pulmonary disease in other WTC responders. +Methods: Cases of sarcoid like granulomatous pulmonary disease were identified by: patient self-report, physician report and ICD-9 codes. Each case was evaluated by three pulmonologists using the ACCESS criteria and only "definite" cases are reported. +Results: Thirty-eight patients were classified as "definite" cases. Six-year incidence was 192/100,000. The peak annual incidence of 54 per 100,000 person-years occurred between 9/11/2003 and 9/11/2004. Incidence in black responders was nearly double that of white responders. Low FVC was the most common spirometric abnormality. +Conclusions: Sarcoid like granulomatous pulmonary disease is present among the WTC responders. While the incidence is lower than that reported among firefighters, it is higher than expected.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)175-184
Number of pages10
JournalAmerican Journal of Industrial Medicine
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2011


  • A case control etiologic study of sarcoidosis (ACCESS)
  • Forced vital capacity (FVC)
  • Granulomatous disease
  • Sarcoidosis
  • World Trade Center (WTC)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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