Revisiting non-pulmonary vein triggers

Carola Gianni, Javier E. Sanchez, Amin Al-Ahmad, Rodney P. Horton, Patrick M. Hranitzky, J. David Burkhardt, Sanghamitra Mohanty, Chintan Trivedi, Luigi Di Biase, Andrea Natale

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Scopus citations


Non-pulmonary Vein (PV) triggers are usually found in other thoracic veins, i.e., superior vena cava, coronary sinus and vein of Marshall, and locations such as left atrial posterior wall (PW), crista terminalis, interatrial septum, and left atrial appendage. This chapter summarizes our approach for mapping and ablation of non-PV triggers, considering that PW isolation is performed empirically in all patients. When targeting non-PV triggers, atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation should be performed after an adequate washout of antiarrhythmic drugs (at least five half-lives) to minimize the chance of non-inducibility. Following pulmonary vein antral isolation and PW isolation, all patients are systematically challenged with isoproterenol 20-30µg/min for 10-15µmin to reveal reconnection of the PV and, most importantly, induce latent non-PV triggers. From an embryological, anatomical, and electrophysiological standpoint, it should be considered an extension of the PVs and its isolation has been proven to improve outcomes in paroxysmal and non-paroxysmal AF patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationCardiac Mapping
Number of pages15
ISBN (Electronic)9781119152637
ISBN (Print)9781119152590
StatePublished - Apr 5 2019


  • Antiarrhythmic drugs
  • Atrial fibrillation ablation
  • Non-paroxysmal atrial fibrillation patients
  • Non-pulmonary vein triggers
  • Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation
  • Posterior wall isolation
  • Pulmonary vein antral isolation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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