Relationship of pregnancy to human papillomavirus among human immunodeficiency virus-infected women

Howard Minkoff, Lin Shen Xian, D. Heather Watts, Robert Leighty, Ron Hershow, Joel Palefsky, Ruth Tuomala, Natalie Neu, Carmen D. Zorrilla, Mary Paul, Howard Strickler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


OBJECTIVE: Because parity is a reported risk factor for cervical cancer, we sought to estimate the effects of pregnancy on the prevalence, incident detection, and copy number of human papillomavirus (HPV) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women, patients at high risk for cervical cancer. METHODS: Human immunodeficiency virus-infected women who had a pregnancy in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (n=178) and the Women and Infants Transmission Study (n=450) underwent serial type-specific HPV DNA testing using MY09/MY11 polymerase chain reaction. During pregnancy and during the prepregnancy and postpregnancy periods, we assessed HPV prevalence, incident detection, and HPV copy number (estimated using hybridization signal strength) of both oncogenic and nononcogenic HPV. All binary-regression analyses incorporated generalized estimating equations to address the repeated observations of the same women over time, and were further adjusted for parity, gestational age, smoking, antiretroviral use, number of lifetime sexual partners, and oral contraceptive use. RESULTS: The prevalence and copy number of oncogenic and nononcogenic HPV did not significantly differ between pregnancy and either the prepregnancy or postpregnancy periods. Incident HPV detection was significantly lower for both oncogenic and nononcogenic HPV during pregnancy compared with the postpregnancy period (relative risk 0.534, 95% confidence interval 0.390-0.732, P<.001 and relative risk 0.577, 95% confidence interval 0.428-0.779, P<.001, respectively), but not compared with the prepregnancy period CONCLUSION: Among HIV-infected women, the incident detection of HPV is lower during pregnancy compared with postpregnancy, while prevalence and copy number do no differ between pregnancy and either prepregnancy or postpregnancy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)953-960
Number of pages8
JournalObstetrics and gynecology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Sep 2006
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology


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