Red fluorescent proteins: Chromophore formation and cellular applications

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

63 Scopus citations


In the last decade, a number of red fluorescent proteins (RFPs) that emit orange, red, and far-red fluorescence have been isolated from anthozoans (corals), and developed through directed molecular evolution. An attractive property possessed by some RFPs is that their red fluorescence can be turned on or modulated by illumination at specific wavelengths. Recent progress in the development of RFPs has been accompanied with detailed studies of chromophore chemistry. A thorough understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the post-translational modifications of red chromophores would enable scientists to design RFPs with the desired properties to advance imaging applications. This article provides a broad perspective on the chemistry and applications of RFPs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)679-688
Number of pages10
JournalCurrent Opinion in Structural Biology
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 2012

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Structural Biology
  • Molecular Biology


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