Recommended Definitions of Aggressive Prostate Cancer for Etiologic Epidemiologic Research

Lauren M. Hurwitz, Ilir Agalliu, Demetrius Albanes, Kathryn Hughes Barry, Sonja I. Berndt, Qiuyin Cai, Chu Chen, Iona Cheng, Jeanine M. Genkinger, Graham G. Giles, Jiaqi Huang, Corinne E. Joshu, Tim J. Key, Synnove Knutsen, Stella Koutros, Hilde Langseth, Sherly X. Li, Robert J. MacInnis, Sarah C. Markt, Kathryn L. PenneyAurora Perez-Cornago, Thomas E. Rohan, Stephanie A. Smith-Warner, Meir J. Stampfer, Konrad H. Stopsack, Catherine M. Tangen, Ruth C. Travis, Stephanie J. Weinstein, Lang Wu, Eric J. Jacobs, Lorelei A. Mucci, Michael B. Cook

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Scopus citations


Background: In the era of widespread prostate-specific antigen testing, it is important to focus etiologic research on the outcome of aggressive prostate cancer, but studies have defined this outcome differently. We aimed to develop an evidence-based consensus definition of aggressive prostate cancer using clinical features at diagnosis for etiologic epidemiologic research. Methods: Among prostate cancer cases diagnosed in 2007 in the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-18 database with follow-up through 2017, we compared the performance of categorizations of aggressive prostate cancer in discriminating fatal prostate cancer within 10 years of diagnosis, placing the most emphasis on sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV). Results: In our case population (n = 55 900), 3073 men died of prostate cancer within 10 years. Among 12 definitions that included TNM staging and Gleason score, sensitivities ranged from 0.64 to 0.89 and PPVs ranged from 0.09 to 0.23. We propose defining aggressive prostate cancer as diagnosis of category T4 or N1 or M1 or Gleason score of 8 or greater prostate cancer, because this definition had one of the higher PPVs (0.23, 95% confidence interval = 0.22 to 0.24) and reasonable sensitivity (0.66, 95% confidence interval = 0.64 to 0.67) for prostate cancer death within 10 years. Results were similar across sensitivity analyses. Conclusions: We recommend that etiologic epidemiologic studies of prostate cancer report results for this definition of aggressive prostate cancer. We also recommend that studies separately report results for advanced category (T4 or N1 or M1), high-grade (Gleason score ≥8), and fatal prostate cancer. Use of this comprehensive set of endpoints will facilitate comparison of results from different studies and help elucidate prostate cancer etiology.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)727-734
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of the National Cancer Institute
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 1 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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