While neovascularization plays an integral role in atherosclerosis, stimulation of angiogenesis does not appear to promote atherogenesis. This observation is important in view of recent advancements in angiogenic gene and cell therapy aimed at promoting new blood vessel growth in humans with vascular disease. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) may actually prevent rather than provoke intimal thickening and vascular remodeling by promoting re-endothelialization in response to vascular trauma, as occurs with percutaneous transluminal vascular intervention for treating atherosclerotic vessels. Further support for the hypothesis that EPCs continuously repair vascular injury and contribute to the rejuvenation of vessels has been derived from animal studies demonstrating that serial injection of bone marrow-derived EPCs prevent atherogenesis, but that the quantity and quality of these cells deteriorate with aging. This chapter provides a summary of the influence of angiogenesis on atheromatous disease. Furthermore, the increasingly important relationship between atherosclerosis and newly emerging techniques in therapeutic angiogenesis (i.e., gene therapy and cell therapy with EPCs) is discussed.