Readability Assessment of Online Patient Resources for Breast Augmentation Surgery

Joseph A. Ricci, Christina R. Vargas, Danielle J. Chuang, Samuel J. Lin, Bernard T. Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Scopus citations


Background: Patients increasingly rely on Internet resources for medical information. Well-informed patients are more likely to be active participants in their health care, contributing to higher satisfaction and better overall outcomes. Access to online patient material, however, can be limited by inadequate functional health literacy. The National Institutes of Health and the American Medical Association recommend that educational content be written at a sixth-grade reading level. This study aims to assess the readability of online patient resources for breast augmentation surgery. Methods: A Web search for "breast implant surgery" was performed using the largest public search engine. After sponsored results were excluded, the 12 most accessed sites were identified. Patient-directed information from all relevant articles immediately linked from the main site was downloaded and formatted into plain text. The readability of 110 articles was evaluated using 10 established analyses, both overall and by Web site. Results: The overall average readability of the 12 most popular Internet resources for breast augmentation was at a thirteenth-grade reading level (Coleman-Liau, 13.4; Flesch-Kincaid, 12.7; FORCAST, 11.3; Fry, 13; New Dale-Chall, 12.9; New Gunning Fog, 13.8; Raygor Estimate, 15; and Simple Mesaure of Gobbledygook Formula, 14.3). The Flesch Reading Ease index was 41, which falls into a "difficult" reading category. No individual article or Web site was at the recommended sixth-grade level. Conclusions: Online resources for breast augmentation are above recommended reading levels. This may potentially serve as a barrier to patients seeking this type of surgery. Plastic surgeons should be aware of potential gaps in understanding and direct patients toward more appropriate resources.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1573-1579
Number of pages7
JournalPlastic and reconstructive surgery
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 25 2015
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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