Psychosocial functioning in patients with treatment resistant depression

Timothy Petersen, George I. Papakostas, Yasmin Mahal, Wendy M. Guyker, Erin C. Beaumont, Jonathan E. Alpert, Maurizio Fava, Andrew A. Nierenberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations


Background. - Depression is a disorder that causes disability, with a profound adverse impact on all areas of psychosocial functioning. This is particularly true for those with treatment resistant depression (TRD). However, to date, no systematic assessments of psychosocial functioning for patients with TRD have been conducted. Methods. - In the present study, we used the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation (LIFE) scale to measure psychosocial functioning in 92 patients with TRD. These patients met formal criteria for TRD and were part of a clinical trial examining the efficacy of lithium augmentation of nortriptyline. Results. - Clinicians rated this sample of patients as experiencing mild to moderate impairment in work-related activities, good to fair interpersonal relations, poor level of involvement in recreational activities, and mild impairment of ability to enjoy sexual activity. Patients and clinicians rated global social adjustment as poor. Conclusions. - Patients with formally defined TRD experience significant impairment in psychosocial functioning. In this sample a tendency existed for both clinicians and patients to assign more severely impaired global ratings when compared with ratings for specific functional areas.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)196-201
Number of pages6
JournalEuropean Psychiatry
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jun 2004
Externally publishedYes


  • Psychosocial functioning
  • Treatment resistant depression

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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