Promotion Disparities in Academic Urology

Benjamin N. Breyer, Christi Butler, Raymond Fang, William Meeks, Sima P. Porten, Amanda C. North, Jennifer T. Anger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Scopus citations


Objective: To better understand promotion timelines across gender and race/ethnicity and how academic output impacts promotion in urology. Methods: We examined the 2017 census. An academic subset was asked questions regarding their promotion timeline. We obtained demographic, academic output, and family responsibility data. Results: Of 2926 academic urologists who identified a position of Assistant, Associate, or Full professor, 11.2% were women, 75% were White, and 94% were non-Hispanic. Men authored more papers and achieved principal investigator status more often than women. Non-Hispanics authored more papers than Hispanics. On average, women took 1.2 years longer than men to advance from Assistant to Associate Professor (7.3 years [95% CI: 6.8-7.8] vs 6.1 years, [95% CI: 5.8-6.6, P <.001]). Advancement from Associate to Full Professor was similar between women and men (6.0 years [95% CI: 5.1-6.9] vs 6.6 [95% CI: 6.1-7.1, P =.25]). Compared to women, men were more likely to experience rapid promotion (≤4 years) to Associate Professor (odds ratio 3 [95% CI: 1.8-5.1]). There was no statistical difference across race/ethnicity for promotion from Assistant to Associate, Associate to Full Professor, or rapid promotion. Conclusion: We identified disparities in promotion times based on gender but not race and ethnicity. The number of under-represented minority faculty in urology is low. Understanding the causes of disparities should be a priority in order to support fair promotion practices and retention of diverse faculty.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)16-23
Number of pages8
StatePublished - Apr 2020

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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