Prognostic Value of Peak Oxygen Uptake in Patients Supported With Left Ventricular Assist Devices (PRO-VAD)

PRO-VAD Investigators

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine whether peak oxygen uptake (pVO2) and other cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET)-derived variables could predict intermediate-term mortality in stable continuous flow LVAD recipients. Background: pVO2 is a cornerstone in the selection of patients for heart transplantation, but the prognostic power of pVO2 obtained in patients treated with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) is unknown. Methods: We collected data for pVO2 and outcomes in adult LVAD recipients in a retrospective, multicenter study and evaluated cutoff values for pVO2 including: 1) values above or below medians; 2) grouping patients in tertiles; and 3) pVO2 ≤14 ml/kg/min if the patient was not treated with beta-blockers (BB) or pVO2 ≤12 ml/kg/min if the patient was taking BB therapy. Results: Nine centers contributed data from 450 patients. Patients were 53 ± 13 years of age; 78% were male; body mass index was 25 ± 5 kg/m2 with few comorbidities (stroke: 11%; diabetes: 18%; and peripheral artery disease: 4%). The cause of heart failure (HF) was most often nonischemic (66%). Devices included were the HeartMate II and 3 (Abbott); and Heartware ventricular assist devices Jarvik and Duraheart (Medtronic). The index CPET was performed at a median of 189 days (154-225 days) after LVAD implantation, and mean pVO2 was 14.1 ± 5 ml/kg/min (47% ± 14% of predicted value). Lower pVO2 values were strongly associated with poorer survival regardless of whether patients were analyzed for absolute pVO2 in ml/kg/min, pVO2 ≤12 BB/14 ml/kg/min, or as a percentage of predicted pVO2 values (P ≤ 0.001 for all). For patients with pVO2 >12 BB/14 and ventilation/carbon dioxide relationship (VE/VCO2) slope <35, the 1-year survival was 100%. Conclusions: Even after LVAD implantation, pVO2 has prognostic value, similar to HF patients not supported by mechanical circulatory support devices.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)758-767
Number of pages10
JournalJACC: Heart Failure
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2021


  • exercise
  • maximum oxygen uptake
  • outcome
  • prognosis
  • survival

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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