Probing the microenvironment of mammary tumors using multiphoton microscopy

Mazen Sidani, Jeffrey Wyckoff, Chengsen Xue, Jeffrey E. Segall, John Condeelis

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

102 Scopus citations


Advances in optical imaging technologies that allow the subcellular resolution of undissected tissue have begun to offer new clues into the biology of development and disease. For cancer, such advances mean that the primary tumor is no longer a black box and that the disease can be studied throughout the metastatic cascade and not just as an endpoint. In this review we examine the advances in multiphoton imaging technology that have been used to define the microenvironment and its role in delineating the invasion and intravasation steps of metastasis inside living mammary tumors. Results show that the tumor microenvironment is a dynamic place where interactions between tumor cells, macrophages, blood vessels, and extracellular matrix fibers define the metastatic phenotype.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)151-163
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2006


  • Breast cancer
  • GFP
  • Intravital imaging
  • Real-time imaging
  • Second harmonic generation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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