Primary human immunodeficiency virus infection during pregnancy detected by repeat testing

Steven Nesheim, Denise J. Jamieson, Susan P. Danner, Robert Maupin, Mary Jo O'Sullivan, Mardge H. Cohen, Mayris P. Webber, Renata Dennis, Marc Bulterys

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe characteristics of pregnant women with newly acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection that was identified by repeat testing. Study Design: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-sponsored Mother-Infant Rapid Intervention at Delivery (MIRIAD) study, which was conducted in 6 US cities, encouraged repeat HIV testing during pregnancy to identify primary infections. Results: Fifty-four HIV-infected women were identified. Four primary HIV infections were recognized, with median estimated seroconversion at 22 weeks of gestation. All 4 women denied new sex partners, alcohol, and illegal drug use during pregnancy. Three of the 4 mother-infant pairs received antiretroviral medications. One infant was infected perinatally, with positive HIV DNA polymerase chain reaction at birth. Questionnaire data identified 2 additional women with HIV that was likely acquired during pregnancy (identified by rapid testing at labor and delivery), which suggests that 6 of 54 HIV-infected women (11%) in the MIRIAD study had primary infection during pregnancy. Conclusion: Repeat HIV testing in pregnancy can identify opportunities for antiretroviral prophylaxis and should be used in areas of high HIV prevalence.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)149.e1-149.e5
JournalAmerican Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 2007


  • HIV
  • perinatal
  • prevention
  • testing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology


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