Prevalence, Awareness, and Treatment of Hypertension in Hispanics/Latinos With CKD in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

Claudia M. Lora, Ana C. Ricardo, Jinsong Chen, Nora Franceschini, Holly J. Kramer, Michal L. Melamed, Leopoldo Raij, Sylvia E. Rosas, Neil Schneiderman, Martha Daviglus, James P. Lash

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Rationale & Objective: Lower rates of hypertension awareness, treatment, and control have been observed in Hispanics/Latinos compared with non-Hispanic whites. These factors have not been studied in Hispanics/Latinos with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We sought to describe the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in Hispanic/Latino adults with CKD. Study Design: Cross-sectional cohort. Setting & Participants: US.Hispanics/Latinos aged 18 to 74 years enrolled in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) with CKD. Comparisons were made with the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007 to 2010. Exposure: CKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or urinry albumin-creatinine ratio ≥ 30 mg/g creatinine. Outcomes: Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure (BP) ≥ 140 or diastolic BP ≥ 90 mm Hg or use of antihypertensives. For hypertension control, 2 thresholds were examined: <140/90 and <130/80 mm Hg. Results: The prevalence of hypertension was 51.5%; among those with hypertension, hypertension awareness and treatment were present in 78.1% and 70.4%, respectively. A low prevalence of BP control was observed (32.6% with BP < 140/90 mm Hg; 17.9% with BP < 130/80 mm Hg). Health insurance coverage was associated with higher odds of BP < 140/90 mm Hg (OR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.15-3.43). Compared with non-Hispanic whites with CKD in NHANES, HCHS/SOL participants with CKD had a lower prevalence of hypertension but a lower rate of BP control (32.6% vs 48.6% for BP < 140/90 mm Hg). Limitations: Use of a single measurement of creatinine, cystatin C, and urinary albumin excretion to define CKD. Single-visit measurement of BP. Conclusions: Hispanics/Latinos with CKD residing in the United States have very low rates of BP control. The association of health insurance coverage with hypertension control suggests that improved access to health care may improve outcomes for this growing population.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)332-340
Number of pages9
JournalKidney Medicine
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 1 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • Hispanics/Latinos
  • Hypertension
  • health disparities
  • hypertension control
  • hypertension treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Nephrology


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