Predictors of advanced chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease in HIV-positive persons

Lene Ryom, Amanda Mocroft, Ole Kirk, Michael Ross, Peter Reiss, Christophe A. Fux, Philippe Morlat, Olivier Moranne, Colette Smith, Wafaa El-Sadr, Matthew Law, Jens D. Lundgren

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

58 Scopus citations


Objectives: Whilst several antiretroviral drugs have been associated with moderate chronic kidney disease (CKD), their contribution to advanced CKD and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) remain unknown. Design: D:A:D participants with at least three estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) after February 2004 were followed until the first of advanced CKD (confirmed eGFR≤30 ml/min,≥3 months apart), ESRD (dialysis ≥3 months/transplantation), 6 months after last visit or February 2012. Methods: Poisson regression was used to assess risk factors for advanced CKD/ESRD including exposure to potential nephrotoxic antiretroviral drugs and antiretroviral drug discontinuation rates according to latest eGFR. Results: Among 35 192 persons contributing 200 119 person years of follow-up (PYFU), 135 (0.4%) developed advanced CKD (n=114)/ESRD (n=21); incidence rate=0.67 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.56-0.79]/1000 PYFU. Tenofovir (TDF) was particularly frequently discontinued as eGFR declined. After adjustment, those previously exposed but currently off TDF had similar advanced CKD/ESRD rate ratios compared with those unexposed [1.00 (95% CI, 0.66-1.51)], while those currently on TDF had reduced rates [0.23 (95% CI, 0.13-0.41)]. No consistent associations with other antiretroviral drugs were seen. Results were robust after time-lagging antiretroviral drug exposure, stratifying by baseline eGFR, and allowing for competing risks. Other predictors were diabetes, hypertension, baseline eGFR, smoking and current CD4 + cell count. The incidence rate in nonsmokers with baseline eGFR60 and no diabetes or hypertension was 0.16 (95% CI 0.09-0.26)/1000 PYFU. Conclusion: Neither current nor recent antiretroviral drug use predicted advanced CKD/ESRD during 6 years median follow-up in a large, heterogenenous and primarily white cohort. TDF discontinuation rates increased with decreasing eGFR, leaving a selected group still on TDF at lower advanced CKD/ESRD risk. Traditional renal risk factors and current CD4+ cell count were the strongest advanced CKD/ESRD predictors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)187-199
Number of pages13
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jan 14 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Advanced chronic kidney disease
  • Adverse events
  • Antiretroviral agents
  • End-stage renal disease
  • HIV
  • Nephrotoxicity
  • Tenofovir

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Infectious Diseases


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