Phosphoproteomics reveals that glycogen synthase kinase-3 phosphorylates multiple splicing factors and is associated with alternative splicing

Mansi Y. Shinde, Simone Sidoli, Katarzyna Kulej, Michael J. Mallory, Caleb M. Radens, Amanda L. Reicherter, Rebecca L. Myers, Yoseph Barash, Kristen W. Lynch, Benjamin A. Garcia, Peter S. Klein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

37 Scopus citations


Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a constitutively active, ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that regulates multiple signaling pathways. In vitro kinase assays and genetic and pharmacological manipulations of GSK-3 have identified more than 100 putative GSK-3 substrates in diverse cell types. Many more have been predicted on the basis of a recurrent GSK-3 consensus motif ((pS/pT)XXX(S/T)), but this prediction has not been tested by analyzing the GSK-3 phosphoproteome. Using stable isotope labeling of amino acids in culture (SILAC) and MS techniquestoanalyzetherepertoire ofGSK-3-dependentphosphorylation in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), we found that ~2.4% of (pS/pT)XXX(S/T) sites are phosphorylated in a GSK- 3-dependent manner. A comparison of WT and Gsk3a;Gsk3b knock-out (Gsk3 DKO) ESCs revealed prominent GSK-3-dependent phosphorylation of multiple splicing factors and regulators ofRNAbiosynthesis as well as proteins that regulate transcription, translation, and cell division. Gsk3 DKO reduced phosphorylation of the splicing factors RBM8A, SRSF9, and PSF as well as the nucleolar proteins NPM1 and PHF6, and recombinant GSK-3β phosphorylated these proteins in vitro. RNASeq of WT and Gsk3 DKO ESCs identified ~190 genes that are alternatively spliced in a GSK-3-dependent manner, supporting a broad role for GSK-3 in regulating alternative splicing. The MSdata also identified posttranscriptional regulation of protein abundance by GSK-3, with ~47 proteins (1.4%) whose levels increased and~78 (2.4%) whose levels decreased in the absence of GSK-3. This study provides the first unbiased analysis of the GSK-3 phosphoproteome and strong evidence that GSK-3 broadly regulates alternative splicing.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)18240-18255
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Issue number44
StatePublished - Nov 3 2017
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology


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