Peripheral Blood Cytokine Profiling During Pregnancy and Post-partum Periods

Thomas A. Kraus, Rhoda S. Sperling, Stephanie M. Engel, Yungtai Lo, Lisa Kellerman, Tricia Singh, Martine Loubeau, Yongchao Ge, Jose L. Garrido, Marta Rodríguez-García, Thomas M. Moran

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

102 Scopus citations


Problem Pregnancy requires that the maternal immune system adapt to prevent rejection of the fetal semi-allograft. This immunologic adaptation may contribute to pregnancy-related alterations in disease susceptibility and severity of infections from viral pathogens such as influenza virus.Method of Study As part of a larger study investigating the maternal systemic immune response during pregnancy, peripheral blood was collected three times during pregnancy and twice post-partum to measure serum levels of 23 cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. This longitudinal study design allowed each woman's post-partum blood draw to serve as her own comparison, thus controlling for interpersonal variability in expression levels.Results When compared to the post-partum samples, significant pregnancy-related changes in IFNγ, TNFα, VEGF, GCSF, Eotaxin, and MCP-1 expression were observed. These changes have significant immunologic effects in vivo and in culture.Conclusion Pregnancy-associated changes to steady state serum cytokines may have important immunologic consequence.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)411-426
Number of pages16
JournalAmerican Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 2010


  • Immunity
  • Reproduction
  • Serum
  • Systemic

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Reproductive Medicine
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology


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