Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) Q192R genotypes and their interaction with smoking strongly increase atherogenicity and the Framingham risk score

Andre de Souza-Nogueira, Alissana Ester Camargo, Felipe Assan Remondi, Monica Maria Bastos Paoliello, Rebecca J. Richter, Clement E. Furlong, Decio Sabbatini Barbosa, Michael Maes, Estefania Gastaldello Moreira

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Objective: Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) polymorphisms are associated with an increased susceptibility to cardiovascular disease. PON1 Q192R polymorphism (rs662) partially determine PON1 hydrolytic activity and protect against oxidation of LDL and HDL. This study aimed to delineate the association of PON1 status (functional 192 genotype and plasma activity levels) and atherogenicity in urbans residents aged 40 years or more. Materials and methods: Anthropometric data, lipid profiles, the atherogenic index of the plasma (AIP) and Framingham score risk were measured. Three kinetic assays were conducted to assay PON1 status using phenylacetate and 4-(chloromethyl)phenyl acetate as substrates. Results: Smoking per se did not significantly impact the AIP but the interaction PON1 genotype by smoking significantly increased the AIP. In subjects with the RR genotype smoking increased the AIP index from (estimated mean ± SEM)-0.038 ± 0.039 to 0.224 ± 0.094. The QR genotype increased the Framingham risk index by around 1.3 points. Smoking by RR genotype carriers significantly increased the Framingham risk score (17.23 ± 2.04) as compared to smoking (13.00 ± 1.06) and non-smoking (7.79 ± 0.70) by QQ+QR genotype carriers. The interaction RR genotype by smoking was a more important predictor (odds ratio = 7.90) of an increased Framingham risk score (> 20) than smoking per se (odds ratio = 2.73). The interaction smoking by RR genotype carriers significantly increased triglycerides and lowered HDL cholesterol. Conclusion: Smoking per se has no (AIP) or a mild (Framingham risk score) effect on atherogenicity, while the interaction smoking by PON1 RR genotype has a clinically highly significant impact on atherogenicity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)426-435
Number of pages10
JournalArchives of endocrinology and metabolism
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • Atherogenic index
  • Cardiovascular risk
  • Framingham score risk
  • Lipid profile
  • Paraoxonase 1
  • Smoking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism


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