Papillary muscle ventricular arrhythmias in patients with arrhythmic mitral valve prolapse: Electrophysiologic substrate and catheter ablation outcomes

Andres Enriquez, Yasuhiro Shirai, Jason Huang, Jackson Liang, David Briceño, Tatsuya Hayashi, Daniele Muser, Brian Fulton, Yuchi Han, Armando Perez, David S. Frankel, Robert Schaller, Gregory Supple, David Callans, Francis Marchlinski, Fermin Garcia, Pasquale Santangeli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

37 Scopus citations


Background: Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a common valve condition and has been associated with sudden cardiac death. Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) from the papillary muscles (PMs) may play a role as triggers for ventricular fibrillation (VF) in these patients. Objectives: To characterize the electrophysiological substrate and outcomes of catheter ablation in patients with MVP and PM PVCs. Methods: Of 597 patients undergoing ablation of ventricular arrhythmias during the period 2012-2015, we identified 25 patients with MVP and PVCs mapped to the PMs (64% female). PVC-triggered VF was the presentation in 4 patients and a fifth patient died suddenly during follow-up. The left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) was 50.5% ± 11.8% and PVC burden was 24.4% ± 13.1%. A cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was performed in nine cases and areas of late gadolinium enhancement were found in four of them. A detailed LV voltage map was performed in 11 patients, three of which exhibited bipolar voltage abnormalities. Complete PVC elimination was achieved in 19 (76%) patients and a significant reduction in PVC burden was observed in two (8%). In patients in which the ablation was successful, the PVC burden decreased from 20.4% ± 10.8% to 6.3% ± 9.5% (P = 0.001). In 5/6 patients with depressed LVEF and successful ablation, the LV function improved postablation. No significant differences were identified between patients with and without VF. Conclusions: PM PVCs are a source of VF in patients with MVP and can induce PVC-mediated cardiomyopathy that reverses after PVC suppression. Catheter ablation is highly successful with more than 80% PVC elimination or burden reduction.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)827-835
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of cardiovascular electrophysiology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • catheter ablation
  • mitral valve prolapse
  • papillary muscles
  • sudden cardiac death.
  • ventricular arrhythmias

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)


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