Persistence or recurrence of large B-cell lymphoma after CD19-CAR-T is common, yet data guiding management are limited. We describe outcomes and features following CAR-T treatment failure. Of 305 adults who received CD19-CAR-T, 182 experienced disease recurrence or progression (1-year cumulative incidence 63% [95%CI: 57–69]). Of 52 post-CAR-T biopsies evaluated by flow cytometry, 49 (94%) expressed CD19. Subsequent anti-cancer treatment was administered in 135/182 (74%) patients with CAR-T treatment failure. Median OS from the first post-CAR-T treatment was 8 months (95%CI 5.6–11.0). Polatuzumab-, standard chemotherapy-, and lenalidomide-based treatments were the most common approaches after CAR-T. No complete responses (CRs) were observed with conventional chemotherapy, while CR rates exceeding 30% were seen following polatuzumab- or lenalidomide-based therapies. Factors associated with poor OS among patients treated post-CAR-T were pre-CAR-T bulky disease (HR 2.27 [1.10–4.72]), lack of response to CAR-T (2.33 [1.02–5.29]), age >65 years (HR 2.65 [1.49–4.73]) and elevated LDH at post-CAR-T treatment (HR 2.95 [1.61–5.38]). The presence of ≥2 of these factors was associated with inferior OS compared to ≤1 (56% vs. 19%). In this largest analysis to date of patients who progressed or relapsed after CD19-CAR-T, survival is poor, though novel agents such as polatuzumab and lenalidomide may have hold promise.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research