Otitis media, communication style of primary caregivers, and language skills of 2 year olds: A preliminary report

Ina F. Wallace, Judith S. Gravel, Richard G. Schwartz, Robert J. Ruben

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


The association between early otitis media, styles of primary caregivers, and language development was prospectively examined in 26 2-year-old children from lower socioeconomic backgrounds (of mixed perinatal status) followed prospectively since birth. Based on otoscopic evaluations during the first year of life, there were 14 children who were classified as bilaterally otitis-free (OM-) and 12 children who were classified as bilaterally otitis-positive (OM+). At 2 years of age, all children were administered standardized measures of cognitive and language function along with a 20-minute videotaped play session with one of their primary caregivers. The language of both the children and caregivers was analyzed. Results indicate that caregivers of OM+ and OM- children used language nearly identically when interacting with their children. However, caregivers of OM+ children whose communication style was marked by a high percentage of directives and a corresponding low percentage of both questions and information-giving had the children with the lowest scores on all measures of naturalistic language. Controlling for neonatal illness did not alter the relationships found. The results suggest that caregiver language may compensate for some of the auditory deprivations associated with otitis media.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)27-35
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1996


  • Child language
  • High-risk infants
  • Maternal-infant communication
  • Otitis media
  • Parental communication

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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