Online patient resources for liposuction a comparative analysis of readability

Christina R. Vargas, Joseph A. Ricci, Danielle J. Chuang, Bernard T. Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


Background: As patients strive to become informed about health care, inadequate functional health literacy is a significant barrier. Nearly half of American adults have poor or marginal health literacy skills and the National Institutes of Health and AmericanMedical Association have recommended that patient information should bewritten at a sixth grade level. The aimof this study is to identify the most commonly used online patient information about liposuction and to evaluate its readability relative to average American literacy. Methods: An internet search of "liposuction" was performed and the 10 most popular websites identified. User and location data were disabled and sponsored results excluded. All relevant, patient-directed articles were downloaded and formatted into plain text. Articles were then analyzed using 10 established readability tests. A comparison group was constructed to identify the most popular online consumer information about tattooing. Mean readability scores and specific article characteristics were compared. Results: A total of 80 articles were collected from websites about liposuction. Readability analysis revealed an overall 13.6 grade reading level (range, 10-16 grade); all articles exceeded the target sixth grade level. Consumer websites about tattooing were significantly easier to read, with a mean 7.8 grade level. These sites contained significantly fewer characters per word and words per sentence, as well as a smaller proportion of complex, long, and unfamiliar words. Conclusions: Online patient resources about liposuction are potentially too difficult for a large number of Americans to understand. Liposuction websites are significantly harder to read than consumer websites about tattooing. Aesthetic surgeons are advised to discuss with patients resources they use and guide patients to appropriate information for their skill level.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)349-354
Number of pages6
JournalAnnals of Plastic Surgery
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • Liposuction
  • Online resources
  • Readability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


Dive into the research topics of 'Online patient resources for liposuction a comparative analysis of readability'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this