Occupational risk factors for chronic kidney disease in Andhra Pradesh: ‘Uddanam Nephropathy’

Youssef M.K. Farag, Kuyilan Karai Subramanian, Vikrum A. Singh, Ravi Raju Tatapudi, Ajay K. Singh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Background: CKD of unknown etiology (CKDu) has been reported in several countries including India. We previously showed a prevalence of CKD in India to be 17.2% and we found a CKD epidemic in Andhra Pradesh (AP) to be 46.8%. We conducted this study to further explore the unexplained CKD epidemic in AP. Methods: We recruited 1201 adult participants through systematic random sampling from eight administrative divisions. Demographic, medical, and detailed occupational history was collected. Anthropometric measurements and blood pressure were taken and blood and urine samples were collected. Poisson regression model was used to identify potential predictors for CKD. Results: We analyzed data for 1184 individuals with mean age of 44.6 ± 14.0 years, of whom 44% were male. Prevalence of CKD was 32.2%. Working as a farmer had 20% more prevalence of CKD compared to non-farmers in the fully adjusted model (PR 1.2, 95% CI 1.01–1.42). Age, alcohol consumption, and chewing tobacco were also independent predictors of CKD. Gender, hypertension, and diabetes were not associated with CKD. Conclusions: The prevalence of CKD in AP is 32.2%. Occupational exposure among farmers could play a potential role in this epidemic. Large longitudinal epidemiologic research studies are needed to trace the causes of this problem.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1032-1041
Number of pages10
JournalRenal Failure
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • Andhra Pradesh
  • India
  • Uddanam Nephropathy
  • chronic kidney disease
  • farmers
  • occupational risk factors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
  • Nephrology


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