Nutrition Assessment and Hormonal Influences on Body Composition in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease

Lauren Graf, Sabrina Candelaria, Maya Doyle, Frederick Kaskel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Malnutrition is a serious complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the pediatric population. Management of the nutritional status of children presents the challenge of ensuring sufficient energy to promote linear growth, development of brain and organs, and maintenance of appropriate fat and muscle stores, while preventing excess protein intake and controlling electrolytes. Aggressive nutrition intervention in the early stages of CKD may be critical in the prevention of more serious complications further in the disease process. Nutrition assessment involves analysis of dietary intake, anthropometric parameters, and laboratory data. Currently, no guidelines are available for nutritional management of pediatric patients with CKD before the onset of dialysis. The content and algorithms in this article are intended to serve as a guide in the management of the nutritional status of children with CKD. Although adequate calorie and protein intake is critical in prevention of malnutrition, it is only part of a complex mechanism in the development of cachexia in CKD. Research suggests that the effects of inflammatory cytokines and hormones such as leptin and ghrelin play a role in the development of malnutrition in CKD. As a more thorough understanding of this mechanism emerges, new treatments aimed at inhibiting cachexia can be developed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)215-223
Number of pages9
JournalAdvances in Chronic Kidney Disease
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2007


  • Nutrition assessment
  • altered metabolism
  • chronic renal insufficiency
  • cytokines
  • malnutrition

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology


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