Neuropsychological latent classes at enrollment and postmortem neuropathology

Andrea R. Zammit, Charles B. Hall, David A. Bennett, Ali Ezzati, Mindy J. Katz, Graciela Muniz-Terrera, Richard B. Lipton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Introduction: We classified individuals based on their baseline performance on cognitive measures and investigated the association between cognitive classifications and neuropathological findings ∼7 years later, as an external validator. Methods: Brain autopsies of 779 decedents were examined. Baseline latent class analysis on 10 neuropsychological measures was previously assigned: mixed-domains impairment (n = 39, 5%), memory-specific impairment (n = 210, 27%), frontal impairment (n = 113, 14.5%), average cognition (n = 360, 46.2%), and superior cognition (n = 57, 7.3%). Linear regressions and risks ratios were used to examine the relation of latent class assignment at enrollment with neuropathological indices. Results: Amyloid β, tau, and transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 were associated with mixed-domains impairment and memory-specific impairment classes ∼7 years before death. Moderate arteriolosclerosis was associated with membership in the frontal impairment class. Discussion: Our findings support the use of latent class models that incorporate more comprehensive neuropsychological measures to classify cognitive impairment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1195-1207
Number of pages13
JournalAlzheimer's and Dementia
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2019


  • Alzheimer's dementia
  • Heterogeneity
  • Individual differences
  • Latent variable modeling
  • Neuropathology
  • Neuropsychology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Health Policy
  • Developmental Neuroscience
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience


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