Near-infrared fluorescent cholangiography facilitates identification of biliary anatomy during laparoscopic cholecystectomy

Sylvester N. Osayi, Mark R. Wendling, Joseph M. Drosdeck, Umer I. Chaudhry, Kyle A. Perry, Sabrena F. Noria, Dean J. Mikami, Bradley J. Needleman, Peter Muscarella, Mahmoud Abdel-Rasoul, David B. Renton, W. Scott Melvin, Jeffrey W. Hazey, Vimal K. Narula

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

108 Scopus citations


Background: Intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) is the current gold standard for biliary imaging during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). However, utilization of IOC remains low. Near-infrared fluorescence cholangiography (NIRF-C) is a novel, noninvasive method for real-time, intraoperative biliary mapping. Our aims were to assess the safety and efficacy of NIRF-C for identification of biliary anatomy during LC. Methods: Patients were administered indocyanine green (ICG) prior to surgery. NIRF-C was used to identify extrahepatic biliary structures before and after partial and complete dissection of Calot’s triangle. Routine IOC was performed in each case. Identification of biliary structures using NIRF-C and IOC, and time required to complete each procedure were collected. Results: Eighty-two patients underwent elective LC with NIRF-C and IOC. Mean age and body mass index (BMI) were 42.6 ± 13.7 years and 31.5 ± 8.2 kg/m2, respectively. ICG was administered 73.8 ± 26.4 min prior to incision. NIRF-C was significantly faster than IOC (1.9 ± 1.7 vs. 11.8 ± 5.3 min, p < 0.001). IOC was unobtainable in 20 (24.4 %) patients while NIRF-C did not visualize biliary structures in 4 (4.9 %) patients. After complete dissection, the rates of visualization of the cystic duct, common bile duct, and common hepatic duct using NIRF-C were 95.1, 76.8, and 69.5 %, respectively, compared to 72.0, 75.6, and 74.3 % for IOC. In 20 patients where IOC could not be obtained, NIRF-C successfully identified biliary structures in 80 % of the cases. Higher BMI was not a deterrent to visualization of anatomy with NIRF-C. No adverse events were observed with NIRF-C. Conclusions: NIRF-C is a safe and effective alternative to IOC for imaging extrahepatic biliary structures during LC. This technique should be evaluated further under a variety of acute and chronic gallbladder inflammatory conditions to determine its usefulness in biliary ductal identification.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)368-375
Number of pages8
JournalSurgical endoscopy
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jan 14 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Biliary mapping
  • Fluorescence cholangiography
  • Indocyanine green
  • Intraoperative cholangiogram
  • Laparoscopic cholecystectomy
  • Near-infrared imaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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