Mutation update on ACAT1 variants associated with mitochondrial acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase (T2) deficiency

Elsayed Abdelkreem, Rajesh K. Harijan, Seiji Yamaguchi, Rikkert K. Wierenga, Toshiyuki Fukao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Mitochondrial acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase (T2, encoded by the ACAT1 gene) deficiency is an inherited disorder of ketone body and isoleucine metabolism. It typically manifests with episodic ketoacidosis. The presence of isoleucine-derived metabolites is the key marker for biochemical diagnosis. To date, 105 ACAT1 variants have been reported in 149 T2-deficient patients. The 56 disease-associated missense ACAT1 variants have been mapped onto the crystal structure of T2. Almost all these missense variants concern residues that are completely or partially buried in the T2 structure. Such variants are expected to cause T2 deficiency by having lower in vivo T2 activity because of lower folding efficiency and/or stability. Expression and activity data of 30 disease-associated missense ACAT1 variants have been measured by expressing them in human SV40-transformed fibroblasts. Only two variants (p.Cys126Ser and p.Tyr219His) appear to have equal stability as wild-type. For these variants, which are inactive, the side chains point into the active site. In patients with T2 deficiency, the genotype does not correlate with the clinical phenotype but exerts a considerable effect on the biochemical phenotype. This could be related to variable remaining residual T2 activity in vivo and has important clinical implications concerning disease management and newborn screening.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1641-1663
Number of pages23
JournalHuman Mutation
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 1 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • ACAT1
  • T2-deficiency
  • genotype-phenotype correlation
  • mutations
  • structure
  • variants
  • β-ketothiolase deficiency

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • Genetics(clinical)


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