Morphologic features of carcinoid heart disease as assessed by three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography

Smruti S. Nalawadi, Robert J. Siegel, Edward Wolin, Run Yu, Alfredo Trento, Takahiro Shiota, Kirsten Tolstrup, Daniel Luthringer, Swaminatha Gurudevan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Background: Carcinoid heart disease (CHD) is a rare cause of valvular heart disease and carries a poor prognosis. CHD has a unique morphology and echocardiographic features that predominantly involve right-sided valvular structures. The diagnosis of CHD is usually made by two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). With the superior spatial resolution of real time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (3DTEE), structural changes that occur in patients with CHD-associated valvular heart disease can be examined in greater detail. We undertook this study to examine the incremental value of 3DTEE in the diagnosis of CHD. Methods: A total of four patients with CHD underwent TTE, transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), and 3DTEE as part of their routine clinical evaluation. Results: TTE and TEE for all four patients revealed thickened, fibrosed, retracted, and malcoapted tricuspid leaflets with wide-open tricuspid valve regurgitation. 3DTEE en face imaging of the tricuspid valve demonstrated the characteristic morphologic features of CHD more clearly in all four patients. Conclusions: 3DTEE provides substantial incremental value over TTE in the assessment of characteristic CHD pathology and thus enhances the echocardiographic diagnosis of CHD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1098-1105
Number of pages8
Issue number9
StatePublished - Oct 2010
Externally publishedYes


  • three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography
  • transesophageal echocardiography
  • tricuspid regurgitation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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