Methodology for Data Collection to Study Prehospital Cardiac Arrest in New York City: The PHASE Methodology

Paul Gennis, Gary Lombardi, E. John Gallagher

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


For the PreHospital Arrest Survival Evaluation Group. Study objective: To describe an effective methodology for the investigation of prehospital cardiac arrest in large cities. Design: Observational cohort study. Setting: New York City emergency medical services system. Participants: All cardiac arrests dispatched by the 911 system between October 1, 1990, and March 31, 1991. Interventions: Trained paramedics performed immediate postarrest interviews with prehospital and hospital care providers using a standardized data collection instrument. Results: Of 3,239 consecutive, confirmed cardiac arrests in which resuscitation was attempted, 2,329 (72%) were of cardiac etiology. Information was sought for 15 of the 17 core events and times recommended by the Utstein Consensus Conference. Data were obtained in more than 98% of cases for all except one of these core events and times. One core time yielded data in 96% of cases. All patients were followed until death or discharge home. None were lost to follow-up. Conclusion: Concurrent, interactive acquisition of prehospital cardiac arrest data in a large urban setting captured over 98% of the core data recommended for completion of the Utstein template. This methodology may be a suitable means of investigating prehospital cardiac arrest in large cities. [Gennis P, Lombardi G, Gallagher EJ: Methodology for data collection to study prehospital cardiac arrest in New York City: The PHASE methodology. Ann Emerg Med August 1994;24:194-201.].

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)194-201
Number of pages8
JournalAnnals of emergency medicine
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 1994
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Emergency Medicine


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