Markers of inflammation, coagulation, and renal function are elevated in adults with HIV infection

Jacqueline Neuhaus, David R. Jacobs, Jason V. Baker, Alexandra Calmy, Daniel Duprez, Alberto La Rosa, Lewis H. Kuller, Sarah L. Pett, Matti Ristola, Michael J. Ross, Michael G. Shlipak, Russell Tracy, James D. Neaton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

677 Scopus citations


Background. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication and immune activation may increase inflammation and coagulation biomarkers. Limited data exist comparing such biomarkers in persons with and without HIV infection. Methods. For persons 45-76 years of age, levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin (IL)-6, D-dimer, and cystatin C were compared in 494 HIV-infected individuals in the Strategies for Management of Anti-Retroviral Therapy (SMART) study and 5386 participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) study. For persons 33-44 years of age, hsCRP and IL-6 levels were compared in 287 participants in the SMART study and 3231 participants in the Coronary Artery Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Results. hsCRP and IL-6 levels were 55% (P < .001) and 62% (P < .001) higher among HIV-infected participants than among CARDIA study participants. Compared with levels noted in MESA study participants, hsCRP, IL-6, D-dimer, and cystatin C levels were 50%, 152%, 94%, and 27% higher, respectively (P<.001, for each), among HIV-infected participants. HIV-infected participants receiving antiretroviral therapy who had HIV RNA levels ≤400 copies/mL had levels higher (by 21% to 60%) (P<.001) than those in the general population, for all biomarkers. Conclusions. hsCRP, IL-6, D-dimer, and cystatin C levels are elevated in persons with HIV infection and remain so even after HIV RNA levels are suppressed with antiretroviral therapy. Additional research is needed on the pathophysiology of HIV-induced activation of inflammatory and coagulation pathways, to guide potential interventions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1788-1795
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Infectious Diseases
Issue number12
StatePublished - Jun 15 2010
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Infectious Diseases


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