Dejan Milatovic, Ramesh C. Gupta, Zhaobao Yin, Snjezana Zaja-Milatovic, Michael Aschner

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

5 Scopus citations


This chapter discusses Manganese (Mn), which is a naturally occurring trace metal commonly found in the environment. Mn exposure may start before birth from the maternal exposure through inhalation and ingestion of food items from environmental pollution. Although its accumulation is associated with reproductive effects, Mn is generally described as neurotoxicant selectively affecting the basal ganglia. Mn is essential for maintaining the proper functioning and regulation of many biochemical and cellular reactions, but is a common environmental contaminant, which can cause toxic effects in humans. Postnatal exposure can also be relevant due to a relatively high concentration of Mn in formulas and continued exposure during the childhood and adulthood from both environmental and occupational exposures. Mn accumulation is associated with reproductive and developmental effects; it also affects the neurosystem adversely. The major routes of intake for Mn in humans are via inhalation and ingestion. Mn toxicity is mostly associated with a neurological disorder referred to as manganism. Symptoms of manganism include irritability, aggressiveness, hallucinations, tremors, difficulty in walking and facial muscle spasm. Children exposed to high levels of Mn in drinking water may develop a variety of adverse developmental effects, particularly relevant to their behaviors and ability to learn and remember. Risk assessment qualitative and quantitative health effects information must be related to available exposure information. The chapter also throws some light on the treatment methods of Mn toxicity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationReproductive and Developmental Toxicology
Number of pages12
ISBN (Electronic)9780123820327
StatePublished - Jan 1 2011
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'Manganese'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this