Long-term test-retest reliability of event-related potential (ERP) recordings during treadmill walking using the mobile brain/body imaging (MoBI) approach

Brenda R. Malcolm, John J. Foxe, John S. Butler, Wenzhu B. Mowrey, Sophie Molholm, Pierfilippo De Sanctis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Scopus citations


Advancements in acquisition technology and signal-processing techniques have spurred numerous recent investigations on the electro-cortical signals generated during whole-body motion. This approach, termed Mobile Brain/Body Imaging (MoBI), has the potential to elucidate the neural correlates of perceptual and cognitive processes during real-life activities, such as locomotion. However, as of yet, no one has assessed the long-term stability of event-related potentials (ERPs) recorded under these conditions. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of cognitive ERPs recorded while walking. High-density EEG was acquired from 12 young adults on two occasions, separated by an average of 2.3 years, as they performed a Go/No-Go response inhibition paradigm. During each testing session, participants performed the task while walking on a treadmill and seated. Using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) as a measure of agreement, we focused on two well-established neurophysiological correlates of cognitive control, the N2 and P3 ERPs. Following ICA-based artifact rejection, the earlier N2 yielded good to excellent levels of reliability for both amplitude and latency, while measurements for the later P3 component were generally less robust but still indicative of adequate to good levels of stability. Interestingly, the N2 was more consistent between walking sessions, compared to sitting, for both hits and correct rejection trials. In contrast, the P3 waveform tended to have a higher degree of consistency during sitting conditions. Overall, these results suggest that the electro-cortical signals obtained during active walking are representative of stable indices of neurophysiological function.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)62-69
Number of pages8
JournalBrain research
StatePublished - Aug 1 2019


  • Cognitive performance
  • Dual-task design
  • EEG
  • Gait
  • Intraclass correlation coefficient
  • N2/P3
  • P300
  • Response inhibition
  • Test-retest reliability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Neuroscience
  • Molecular Biology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Developmental Biology


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