Labral Morphology and Number of Preoperative Dislocations Are Associated With Recurrent Instability After Arthroscopic Bankart Repair

Ravi Vaswani, Gregory Gasbarro, Christopher Como, Elan Golan, Mitchell Fourman, Andrew Wilmot, Camilo Borrero, Dharmesh Vyas, Albert Lin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


Purpose: To develop a method to measure capsule and labral volume on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging to predict surgical failure after primary Bankart repair. Methods: A retrospective case-control study was conducted on patients undergoing primary anterior arthroscopic shoulder stabilization. Surgical failure was defined as a recurrent dislocation event. Cases were matched to controls based on age and sex in a 1:2 ratio. Preoperative magnetic resonance (MR) arthrograms were analyzed by 2 trained reviewers using Vitrea software to measure labral and capsular volume with a 3-dimensional model. Labral size was also qualitatively measured on axial images. A “diffusely small” labrum was defined as labral height less than the width of the glenoid tidemark cartilage. Results: Of the 289 patients who had an arthroscopic Bankart repair from 2006 to 2015, 33 who had a postoperative dislocation met the inclusion criteria and were matched to 62 control patients who did not. There was no difference between groups with regard to age (P = .88), sex (P = .82), contact sport participation (P = .79), proportion of overhead athletes (P = .33), proportion of throwers (P = 1), surgical positioning in lateral decubitus (P = .18), or number of repair anchors used (P = .91). The average number of preoperative dislocations was significantly higher in the failure group (3.2 vs. 2.0, P < .0001). In patients with normal labrum morphology, the odds of having surgical failure increased by 26% for a 1-unit increase in the number of prior dislocations (odds ratio [OR] 1.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02 to 1.55). The case and control groups had similar labral and capsular volume as measured in Vitrea. The failure group had a significantly higher proportion of patients with a diffusely small labral morphology (47% vs. 17%, P = .03). Controlling for number of preoperative dislocations, the odds of having a diffusely small labral morphology was 3.2 times more likely in the case group than the control group (95% CI 1.259 to 8.188). Interrater reliability between 2 independent reviewers was excellent for measurement of capsule volume (r = 0.91) and good for measurement of labral volume (r = 0.74). Conclusions: This study presents a novel method of measuring labral and capsule volume with high interrater reliability. An increased number of recurrent dislocations prior to primary Bankart repair was associated with increased odds of recurrent instability after surgery. The OR for failure also increased with increasing number of preoperative dislocations. Diffusely small labral morphology was associated with having a postoperative redislocation. Level of Evidence: III (case-control study).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)993-999
Number of pages7
JournalArthroscopy - Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2020
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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