Intellectual disabilities

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36 Scopus citations


According to the definition, intellectual disability (ID) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by deficits in both intellectual functioning and adaptive functioning (>2 SD below the mean as measured by standardized tests and questionnaires), with onset in the developmental period or younger than 18 years of age. The severity of ID is based on a person’s adaptive functioning and level of supports. (1) • Based on some research evidence as well as consensus, the initial approach to the evaluation for the etiology of the ID includes a thorough history, a detailed physical examination, and a focused evaluation based on the history and physical examination findings, whichmay include laboratory testing, genetic testing, and imaging. (7)Based on some research evidence as well as consensus, the recommendation for the evaluation of nonsyndromic ID of unknown etiology includes genetic testing with chromosomal microarray analysis, fragile X testing, and karyotyping. For females with severe-profound D, testing for Rett syndrome is also recommended. (24) • Based on some research evidence as well as consensus, the mainstay of treatment and management of ID/global developmental delay is the utilization of special education and early intervention programs through the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Individuals with ID, especially those with moderate to profound ID, should also be evaluated for comorbid medical andmental health conditions,which aremore prevalent in this population than in the healthy population. Finally, children with ID, as with other children with special health-care needs, are best followed in a medical home–type setting where there is collaboration between the pediatrician, other health professionals, community workers, and the child’s family. (6)(29)(30).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)299-309
Number of pages11
JournalPediatrics in review
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2018
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health


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