Integrated multimodal-catheter imaging unveils principal relationships among ventricular electrical activity, anatomy, and function

Liyun Rao, Yuesheng Ling, Renjie He, April L. Gilbert, Nikolaos G. Frangogiannis, Jianwen Wang, Sherif F. Nagueh, Dirar S. Khoury

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Multiple imaging modalities are employed independent of one another while managing complex cardiac arrhythmias. To combine electrical, anatomical, and functional imaging in a single catheter system, we developed a balloon catheter that carried 64 electrodes on its surface and an intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) catheter through a central lumen. The catheter system was inserted, and the balloon was inflated inside the left ventricle (LV) of eight dogs with 6-wk-old infarction, created by occlusion in the left anterior descending coronary artery. Anatomy was constructed by ICE imaging (9 MHz) through the balloon. Single-beat noncontact mapping (NCM) was performed via the multielectrode array to reconstruct unipolar endocardial electrograms during sinus rhythm. Standard contact mapping (CM) of the endocardium was also carried out for reference. Myocardial infarction in anterior LV extending from the middle to apical regions was localized both by ICE and NCM and validated by CM and pathology. The overall difference in the activation times between NCM and CM was 3 ± 1 ms. Unipolar voltage in infarcted middle anterior LV was smaller than the voltage in normal middle inferior LV both by NCM (11 ± 4 vs. 16 ± 3 mV; P = 0.002) and CM (11 ± 3 vs. 20 ± 4 mV; P < 0.001). Unipolar voltage was also inversely related to infarct transmurality, both by NCM (r = -0.87; P = 0.005) and CM (r = -0.94; P < 0.001). The infarct area by ICE (7.7 ± 2.9 cm2) was in agreement with CM (bipolar voltage, <1 mV; and area, 7.6 ± 3.3 cm 2; r = 0.80; P = 0.016). Meanwhile, the voltage threshold that depicted the infarct area by NCM was directly related to the smallest unipolar voltage reconstructed within the infarct (r = 0.96; P < 0.001). In conclusion, combining NCM and ICE imaging in a single catheter system is feasible. The preclinical development of such an integrated system and its evaluation in experimental myocardial infarction demonstrate capabilities for single-beat mapping at multiple sites as well as the online assessment of anatomy and myocardial function.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)H1002-H1009
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2008
Externally publishedYes


  • Electrophysiology
  • Myocardial infarction
  • Noncontact mapping

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)


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